Some thoughts - Sue Stubbs
What is Inclusive Development?
- It is a process that leads towards the goal of an Inclusive Global community
- It is based on understanding of 2 concepts ;
- Inclusion is a process and a goal.
- Diversity is a fact of life. Difference is normal. Some people are excluded from society because of difference. Difference can be due to a range of factors, some universal, some cultural and context specific.
- Inclusion is about society changing to accommodate difference, and to combat discrimination. It sees society as the problem, not the person.
- To achieve inclusion, a twin track approach is needed ;
- Focus on the society to remove the barriers that exclude. (mainstreaming)
- Focus on the group of persons who are excluded, to build their capacity and support them to lobby for their inclusion.
- Because inclusion involves everyone in society at all levels, collaboration and networking are core strategies to achieve inclusion
- Development needs to be carefully defined. The Millenium Development Goals provide a basic framework :
- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Achieve Universal primary education
- Promote gender equality and empower women
- Reduce child mortality
- Improve maternal health
- Ensure environmental sustainability
- Develop a Global partnership for development
- Key ingredients of development are;
- poverty alleviation,
- human rights
- civil society participation.
- Inclusive Development therefore is the process of ensuring that all marginalized/ excluded groups are included in the development process.
Key Ingredients of Inclusive Development in relation to Disability
- Poverty alleviation is central
- Community development approach
- Human Rights Framework; including basic rights/needs (socio-economic)
- Collaboration, networking, listening and tolerance between all stakeholder groups
- Twin track approach
- 'nothing about us without us' - consultation
- capacity building of DPOs - from birth (life skills) and including family members
- Rights-based CBR, including development of cross-disability self advocacy groups
- social model definition of disability
- Identification of particularly vulnerable groups (age/ gender/ impairment)
- Comprehensive accessibility
Why Inclusive Development needs to be on the agenda
Danger of dominance of a north-based disability model. The dangers are;
- DISABILITY IN THE NORTH
- Individualistic model of human rights
- Independent living is a goal
- Human rights focus on civil/political, because socio-economic are often met
- Impairment-based services often well or adequately developed. Therefore focus on social barriers
- Majority of disabled persons are elderly
- Mild impairments are usually corrected
- Focus on making existing infrastructures/services accessible
- DPOs can represent disabled people
- Urban based, relatively stable.
- DISABILITY IN THE SOUTH
- For 3/4 of the world, the family and community are more important than the individual.
- Inter-dependence is the reality
- Right to life, food, shelter, clothing, development of basic life skills is priority
- Absolute lack of basic services. Therefore service development at community level is an absolute priority
- 80% of worlds disabled children are in the South
- Vast majority of disabled people in the South have mild/moderate impairments
- Focus on development of basic services for all.
- DPOs are usually urban-based with no grass-roots constituency
- Majority rural based. Increasing situations of conflict, displacement, natural disasters
Why disability is a development issue:
- Poverty is a cause and consequence of disability.
- Poverty will not be alleviated without including disabled persons.
- Development will not be sustainable without civil society participation
- Many groups are currently excluded from or marginalized in relation to participation. Disabled people are one such group, and are also represented in all other groups (women, children, people with HIV/AIDs, ethnic minorities, nomads, people in conflict/refugee situations
- Development happens through collaboration and partnership with all sectors of the community.
- Key issues: poverty, participation, consultation, collaboration.
Ingredients of a Good Disability Policy
- Mainstreamed policy
- 'Nothing about us without us'
- Goal of an Inclusive Society - embracing diversity
- Human Rights Framework (UN Standard Rules)
- Social Model analysis
- Integral to poverty alleviation
- Twin-track approach
- Practical strategies; CBR, IE, capacity building of DPOs
- Particularly vulnerable groups; 'double' discrimination, particular impairment groups, challenging situations (conflict, refugee etc)
- Comprehensive accessibility; information, communication, environment, services
- Responsibility and Resources - mainstreamed and allocated
IDDC and Inclusive Development - lessons learnt
- Focus on the overall goal and what is in common
- Tolerance for differences and respect for each others opinions and experience
- Actively listen to smaller voices
- Build trust slowly and consistently
- Prioritise consensus building rather than majority vote
- Share and rotate responsibility and leadership
- Acknowledge mistakes and continue to learn
- Focus on involvement as much as achievement of tasks